Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 3047-3060 (2007)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) - a comparative study of fruits and seeds

Katrin Hermann, Juliane Meinhard, Peter Dobrev, Ada Linkies, Bedrich Pesek, Barbara Heß, Ivana Machácková, Uwe Fischer, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

Institute of Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br., Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' (K.H., A.L., B.H., G-L.-M.)
KWS SAAT AG, Grimsehlstr. 31, D-37555 Einbeck, Germany, Web: (J.M., U.F.)
Institute of Experimental Botany CAS, Rozvojová 263, CZ-16502 Prague 6, Czech Republic, Web: (P.D., B.P., I.M.)

Received June 15, 2007; accepted June 25, 2007

Sugar beet germination

Figure 3. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor) / ethylene on radicle emergence of fruits (A,C) and seeds (B,D-F) of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet).
(A,B,E) Fruits or seeds were incubated with ABA, ACC, GA4+7, fluridone (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) or flurprimidol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) added to the medium, or with 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD, ethylene action inhibitor, applied via the gas phase) or ethylene (applied via the gas phase as described in materials and methods). (C,D,F) Dry fruits were permeated using the DCM-technique with ABA, GA4+7, fluridone or flurprimidol as indicated (ABA-perm, GA4+7-perm, fluridone-perm, flurprimidol-perm) and fruits (C) or seeds dissected from these fruits (D,F) were incubated in medium without hormones or inhibitors. Note that DCM-permeated controls (Control-perm) were used for comparison. Radicle emergence of fruit or seed populations was scored over time; conditions as in Fig. 2. Mean values ± SE of a representative experiment with triplicates of 100 fruits or 25 seeds are presented; the results were confirmed in independent experiments; SE values < 1.5 % are not drawn. Statistical significance of results was analysed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison test performed using GraphPad Prism software (version 4.0 for Macintosh, GraphPad Software, San Diego California USA, Means of treatments labeled with asterisks differ significantly from the corresponding controls: *, 0.05 > P > 0.01; **, 0.01 > P > 0.001; ***, P < 0.001.

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   Abstract    Fig. 1               Fig. 2
Fig. 5               Fig. 6
Fig. 3               Fig. 4                Tab. 1
Fig. 7               Suppl. Fig. S1
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